Temple of Literature (Van Mieu-Quoc Tu Giam)
The very first stop-over of any foreign tourist in Hanoi is always Van Mieu-Quoc Tu Giam (translated as Temple of Literature), which reveals the Hanoians’ spirit of study in the past!
Văn Miếu or Temple of Literature, known as "pagode des Corbeaux" during the period of French colonisation, was founded as a Confucian temple in 1070.
Only parts of the Văn Miếu complex date back to the earliest period, although much of the architecture dates to the Ly (1010 – 1225) and Tran (1225 – 1400) Dynasties. In 1076, Vietnam's first university, the Quốc Tử Giám (or National University), was established within this temple to educate Vietnam's mandarin class. The university functioned for more than 700 years, from 1076 to 1779, during which, 2,313 doctors graduated. Hence, the complex has been attached to the name of Van Mieu-Quoc Tu Giam up to now.